The Ljubljana process led to a greater integration in Europe through the launch of number of initiatives. However we see that the governance has become more fragmented, both in terms of adding new governance mechanisms to those already existing, as well as developing a set of different governance mechanisms for the ERA, thus reducing coherence.

The Innovation Union, in its call for Innovation Partnerships as a tool for its implementation, advises for "effective, simple and sufficiently flexible structures to steer and monitor progress, arbitrate between diverging interests, and remedy any delays". It is clear that developing a common European vision and enhanced governance for the application and coordination of national and European policies and their joint implementation of projects of interest to the Community is essential for the success of the research and innovation strategic objectives. With considerable number of governance mechanisms at the European level, with the different references to the legal framework of the European Union tackling governance failures, such as, a deep sectorial division between public administrations, and great differences in cultures and ways of thinking across these administrations or agencies, inhibits the capability for integration and innovation.

The adaptability of innovation systems and policy systems includes integration of policy areas into policy domains for innovation with greater coherence than before, integration of the policy cycle (agenda setting, priority setting, implementation) into systemic learning and business models, as well as a number of institutional factors that tended to inhibit the adaptability of governance systems. More precisely the questions were the following:

  • How should governance mechanisms and practices on a supra-national level be designed to ensure an effective and legitimate restructuring and specialisation of research and innovation activities?
  • How will they also ensure representativeness, transparency and accountability?
  • What needs to be done at the level of governance in order to ensure that we bridge the death valleys from idea to market and from mere improvement to breakthroughs?
  • How will the future governance mechanisms ensure value added to Europe overall not only to the structures represented?
  • Are different mechanisms needed for research and respectively for innovation?